Статья по английскому языку «Воспитание внимательности учеников»
Education of attentiveness of pupils
One of the major psychological problems in system of continuous education is a problem of education of level of attentiveness of pupils.
It is known that reading of popular scientific and educational literature occupies the lion's share of time in independent work of pupils. Researches of psychologists and sociologists with all evidence testify that for a number of professions and specialties successful activity is possible at incomplete attention (from 20% to 40%), conscious and critical reading, active hearing and at the same time thinking is possible only at full attention. It directs us at important practical conclusions in the organization of training and independent work of pupils: about need of the correct alternation of types of mental work for lesson schedule; about creation of optimum conditions in the reading rooms and offices preventing occurrence of premature exhaustion.
By numerous psychology and pedagogical researches it is proved that the system of training and education is directed on formation of the comprehensive and harmoniously developed personality, it has to get a response from itself, cause desire to be improved, aspiration to attentiveness and self-development. It should be noted that the unity of processes of education of attentiveness and self-education is carried out only by interaction of the tutor (the teacher, the teacher, the mentor) and the pupil in the course of educational and work. From this before scientists and experts teachers there is a task of further improvement of psychology and pedagogical techniques of education of attentiveness and self-education of the identity of the pupils. However, without purposeful and constant efforts of the teacher, attentiveness to the school student doesn't come. It needs to be developed at each lesson. And for this purpose it is necessary to get acquainted at least in general with essence and attention mechanisms.
Attentiveness is a property of mental identity of the person. It is characterized by degree of formation of the skills connected with work of attention. Skills of concentration , distribution and switching of attention belong to their number.
Under identical conditions of education the level of attentiveness of different pupils isn't identical. It is explained, first of all, by features of their temperament. If for the pupil mobility and at the same time steadiness of psychological processes (sanguine temperament), attentiveness easier are characteristic to develop at it. If it differs in hypererethism, unbalance of psychological processes, impulsiveness of behavior (choleric and melancholic temperaments), development of attentiveness demands much bigger efforts as from the teacher, and the pupil. Inertness of psychological processes (phlegmatic person’s temperament) also interferes with education of some lines of attentiveness (in particular, abilities to fast switching of attention).
And still the main thing in this case is the general regularities of education of attentiveness which are shown in all cases irrespective of features of temperament of this or that pupil. These regularities are caused by essence of the most mental process called by attention. In what does it consist?
The concept of attention is a peculiar characteristic of work of our consciousness. (Therefore, by the way, in many cases these two terms are used as interchangeable.) We emphasize with the characteristic not of the content of consciousness, namely its work, its dynamics.
The awake person constantly realizes something. But in each this time point his consciousness (attention) is directed only on one any object, say, on contents of the readable book or the listened lecture, on the considered mechanism, on considering of the plan of the forthcoming work, on tracking the course of the carried-out operation, etc. If the object of attention is out of the person then speak about external attention. If object are own thoughts, images, feelings of the person, it is about internal attention.
Distribution and switching of external attention are the most important mechanisms of regulation of activity in many professions. However they play especially important role in work of the operator (for example, the driver).
As for internal attention (characteristic, in particular, for activity of the designer, the scientist, the writer, in general for profound thinking), its dynamics also consists of the acts of distribution and switching replacing each other. A difference only that all this is directed on internal objects – thoughts, images, feelings.
Observation is an important component of attentiveness, one of its effective tools. Besides the attention and attentiveness don't exist in isolation from other mental processes and properties. They can function and prove only in interaction with perception, memory, imagination, thinking. The leader directing a role in this interaction is played, of course, by thinking. Material for its work (as well as for work of attention) provides memory. Therefore, and education of attentiveness of pupils in many respects has to consist in the organization and rationalization of their memory.
It is possible to note that the carelessness of the beginner is considerably caused by not formation of his movement skills. Is the formation of skills the main way to attentiveness education?
Undoubtedly, these two processes are interconnected: formation and functioning of movement skills is impossible without a certain level of attentiveness of pupils and education of this quality can happen in the course of use of movement skills. That's why the main problem of education of attentiveness as regulatory, so, and fundamental mental property has to be leading. Besides this task has narrower and purposeful character and if to concentrate on it special efforts, the foundation of its decision can be laid in rather short time. What specific actions can be recommended for achievement of this purpose?
As a starting point of attentiveness is armament of an approximate basis of activity, including algorithms of switching and distribution of attention in these or those standard conditions of its course and it is necessary to direct prime efforts on the solution of this task.
I organized the pedagogical research directed on studying of level of attentiveness of pupils of 5-9 classes. Were applied to this purpose, the questionnaire questionnaire, connected by six qualities of attentiveness. The choice of these qualities was defined, first, by the analysis of psychology and pedagogical literature and, secondly; convenience of application of such technique in educational process.
Results allows to draw a conclusion that work on education of level of attentiveness of pupils should be sped up not in teenage, and at earlier age. It turned out, in our opinion, rather paradoxical situation: in initial classes at school students various personal qualities, including attentiveness start being formed and improved, and later at the majority of them these qualities start being deformed.
This fact is extremely disturbing therefore serious scientific work is necessary for its overcoming together with psychologists, experts teachers on the organization of efficiency of education of level of attentiveness of younger generation.
Автор: Силютина Екатерина Игоревна-учитель английского языка МБОУ СШ №8 г. Ярцево Смоленской области
Автор: Силютина Екатерина Игоревна